When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words although not changing meaning. For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in or close to the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on biology:.
The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30, to 40, workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens.
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In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows:. Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by "clustering together in a dense ball" for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed:.
Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee such as bumblebees , are able to live through the winter.
The 30, to 40, bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs.
This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Giving an Oral Presentation
In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's "clustering together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.
Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden :.
Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers.
The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:. A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight.
In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all:.
Thesis Summary Examples
James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:. James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts. James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program.
James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative.
Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago:. If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves.
They want to be educational institutions, but they can't.
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The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves.
Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion. You may want to quote part of the following sentence:. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the material into your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible.
Here's how we would quote Hutchins:. Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example:. Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards.
Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end.
https://official-life.tokyo/wp-includes/53-plaquenil-prix.php Thus, you could write:. According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon:. But Robert Hutchins disagrees: "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations as in the examples above.
When attributing sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences:. To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. And here was how we used this material:.
Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in the sentence at the point of deletion. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words:.
If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all:.
If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an ellipsis. Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence:. Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau. Using Brackets Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets.
When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage:. This book's text is coy and condescending.