Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail. Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.
APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information. The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:.
Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.
Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources.
MLA sample paper
Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information. In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.
When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.
Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence an optional piece of information to include and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase. Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence.
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As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source. Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task.
Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews.
APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:.
How Do I Format Margins and Page Numbers in Turabian/Chicago Style? | CMOS Shop Talk
The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.
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The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns. Write an abstract summarizing your paper. University of Michigan Library Research Guides.
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This guide will help you use Microsoft Word for your dissertation. Topics include: formatting page numbers, using chapter templates, footnotes, images, and figures. Some screenshots may come from a previous version of Word, but remain relevant.
Page Contents This page will inform you about page numbers, including: Adding page numbers general information Using sections to control page numbering Breaking the connection between sections Adding the page numbers. Editing the Header and Footer In Word, you can edit the headers and footers by double clicking in the space in which they appear on the document. Adding Page Numbers Microsoft Word provides you with the option of selecting a numbering style e.
If you turn on the paragraph markers, you should now see a section break on the previous page.go to link
Microsoft Word for Dissertations
Put your cursor before the first letter of your first chapter and repeat steps 2 and 3. Page Margins 1" on all sides top, bottom, left, right 1" on all sides top, bottom, left, right Font pt. Times Roman or Courier. For figures, however, use a sans serif font such as Arial. Leave one space after a period unless your teacher prefers two.
Title Page Only if your teacher requests one.
Formatting a Research Paper
Instead, on the first page, upper left corner place on separate lines, double-spaced: Your name Teacher's name Course name or number Date Underneath, center the title using regular title capitalization rules and no underline. Start the report immediately below the title. The title page is always the first page. On the line below the page number, the running head is typed flush left all uppercase following the words "Running head:" Below the running head, the following are centered on their own lines, using upper and lower case: Paper title Your name Your school Section Headings Top level headings should be centered on the page, using upper and lower case.
Second level headings should be flush left, italicized, using upper and lower case.